How much hay will a cow consume?
Estimating forage usage by cows is an important part of the task of calculating winter feed needs. Hay or standing forage intake must be estimated in order to make the calculations.
Forage quality will be a determining factor in the amount of forage consumed. Higher quality forages contain larger concentrations of important nutrients so animals consuming these forages should be more likely to meet their nutrient needs from the forages. Also cows can consume a larger quantity of higher quality forages.
Higher quality forages are fermented more rapidly in the rumen leaving a void that the animal can refill with additional forage. Consequently, forage intake increases. For example, low quality forages (below about 6 percent crude protein) will be consumed at about 1.5 percent of body weight (on a dry matter basis) per day. Higher quality grass hays (above 8 percent crude protein) may be consumed at about 2 percent of body weight.
Excellent forages, such as good alfalfa, silages, or green pasture may be consumed at the rate of 2.5 percent dry matter of body weight per day. The combination of increased nutrient content and increased forage intake makes high quality forage very valuable to the animal and the producer. With these intake estimates, now producers can calculate the estimated amounts of hay that need to be available.
Using an example of 1,200-pound, pregnant, spring-calving cows, let’s assume that the grass hay quality is good and tested 8 percent crude protein. Cows will voluntarily consume 2 percent of body weight or 24 pounds per day. The 24 pounds is based on 100 percent dry matter. Grass hays will often be 7 to 10 percent moisture. If we assume that the hay is 92 percent dry matter or 8 percent moisture, then the cows will consume about 26 pounds per day on an “as-fed basis.”
Unfortunately we also have to consider hay wastage when feeding big round bales. Hay wastage is difficult to estimate, but generally has been found to be from 6 to 20 percent (or more). For this example, let’s assume 15 percent hay wastage. This means that approximately 30 pounds of grass hay must be hauled to the pasture for each cow each day that hay is expected to be the primary ingredient in the diet. — Glenn Selk, Oklahoma State University Emeritus Extension Animal Scientist